Security Fundamentals

2. Growth of Digital Technologies & Data

Growing Digital Technologies

Growing Connectivity

Just about everybody has a personal computer (laptop or desktop), a tablet and/or a smart-phone. People are just replacing them with newer more powerful versions. Increasingly all TV's sold are 'smart' and can be connected to the internet.

Wearable technology like 'fit-bits', Apple and Samsung watches are beginning to be popular. Cars too are not being being left out, getting connected to the internet speaking to one another and traffic management systems.

The real growth in the future though is going to be in the The Internet of Things (IOT).

Growth in Technologies
Internet of Things

The IOT is a term that describes everything becoming connected. We're used to phones and computers talking to one another, but the IOT includes things that are usually considered 'dumb'. So your fridge will automatically place orders for items you are in danger of running out off - don't forget the milk. Watches and sensors will monitor your health sending data to your doctor's surgery: your doctor will be able to contact you, before you become aware aware you're ill.

Transport systems will become smarter, knowing where you are through GPS (Global Positioning System) and will be able to tell you the best or cheapest way of getting to your destination.

Entertainment systems will learn what music, what programmes or you-tube channels you like. They will automatically record or divert entertainment to whatever device being used.

Power will only be supplied when you need it. Houses will become smarter. Heating, lighting and security systems will be able to be controlled remotely.

All these devices connected to one another creates real problems for security. Each one creates a possible point of entry for a hacker. Imagine, your identity get stolen because a hacker gained access to your details through your fridge.

Trends in data growth.
Growth in Big Data

To infinity and beyond!

Upwards ... always upwards. Growth in data can be described as exponential in that its doubling each year. The graph probably under estimates data growth, especially when as we move towards the internet of things (IOT) with more devices generating and storing their own data.

And what's an Exabyte of data? A lot ... a vast swimming pool's worth of data. If you think that an average desktop computer comes with 1 Terabyte drive (1024 Gigabytes) then an Exabyte is the equivalent to a billion Gigabytes. Now we are storing thousands of Exabytes and beginning to discuss Zettabytes (1 Zettabyte = 1 Trillion Gigabytes).

A Wotabyte? ... No a Zettabyte!

1000 Exabytes equals 1 Zettabyte. So the graph shows by 2020 we'll be producing about 40 Zettabytes worth of data each year.

1 zettabyte is equivalent to 152 million years of high-definition video and that's a lot cat clips on on You-tube!

Difference between Exabyte and Zettabyte
Thinking about data ...

So what data is being added ...

The graphic gives an indication of how much data is added each minute and is going to increase. Just think 72 hours of video added each minute to You-tube alone. While nearly all of it will be rubbish, the problems of finding what you really want is going to get harder and harder.

And as the pool of data grows, the problems of security are going to increase together with the increased opportunity for crime.

Growth in Big Data
1. Connected
Everything is becoming connected, all passing data to one another, so:-
  1. In your OneNote, add a page to your Security Fundamentals section called Growing Connectivity, Growing Data.
  2. Under a heading Growing Connectivity, make a list of 10 devices that you have, which are, or could be connected to at least one other device. The examples can be ones you wear, carry or have at home.
  3. In your own words, describe the growth of connected devices. In broad terms identify when this growth took off.
  4. Explain what you think is going to happen to rate of growth of connected devices in the future.
  5. Which category of connected device is going to show the most growth? Give at least two reasons for your choice.
Get Connected
High Fidelity

With WiFi, devices no longer have to be connected to each other by wires. This makes it very easy to add additional devices to a network and have them all working together.

  1. Create a heading Internet of Things
  2. Watch the video opposite.
  3. Explain what is meant by the term 'IoT'.
  4. Provide 5 examples of unusual devices connected together. Explain the benefits of connecting them together. - use internet for research.
  5. Describe the growth of digital information. What do you think is going happen to the growth of data and the IoT expands?
  6. In OneNote, arrange following in order of size - largest first, smallest last - Gigabyte, Exabyte, Zettabyte, Kilobyte, Petabyte, Terrabyte
  7. As more data is added to the internet, what problems is this going to create in the future?.
  8. Compare your notes with your next door neighbour. Correct if necessary.
Dangerous Spirits

Connecting 'Things' together is good. It brings greater advantages than devices can bring when they work on their own. But, because there are no wires, and WiFi extends over big distances they are vulnerable to hackers and come with their own dangers.

  1. Watch the video opposite.
  2. Read the blog post by clicking the link Your smart fridge may kill you: The dark side of IoT.
  3. Under an appropriate heading, provide 5 examples of how the IoT can be exploited for criminal purposes.
Attack Plans

Successful hacking and creating successful defences against hacker attacks, depends upon developing unanticipated attack ideas and then thinking about how you would defend against someone using that plan.

  1. In OneNote, create a new section, called Hacking Attack Plans.
  2. Using the knowledge of Task 3, think about a connected system or device that you would attack. Car, plane, heating system, entertainments system, fridge etc.
  3. Describe what connected device you would use to gain entry and what you would do with that system once you had control.
  4. Try to anticipate possible safeguards the system designers might have put in place to protect users. - in the car hijack video, hackers could only control the steering remotely if the car was travelling below a certain speed.

With your attack plan, don't think about the actual technical details of how to do it - that will come later. It just a broad outline that needed.

You should be able to:-
  • Discuss the growth of digital technologies.
  • Be able to explain the term 'Internet of Things (IOT)'.
  • Describe the growth of data.
  • Explain the difference between Gigabyte, Terabyte, Exabyte and Zettabytes as units of storage
  • Explain how the growth of IOT and data create the scope for cyber crime and security.

If you don't feel confident in meeting any of these performance criteria, ask your teacher or re-read the information again.

Cyber Security

  • Security Fundamentals
  • Data Security
  • Digital Forensics
  • Ethical Hacking
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